Standby Power and Energy Efficiency

THE WORKSHOP

The key initial objective of the workshop is to go through the key steps in ensuring a reliable power supply to critical systems using various available options. The solutions can vary from the simple diesel generating set as standby sources to high-capacity UPS systems for large business premises. New technologies such as fuel cells have matured and are fast becoming mainstream solutions. Of course, all this comes at a price, which means that the solution must match the actual needs at a reasonable cost. We will discuss how to save dollars by finding the right solution to your needs so that you invest just what is needed and where it is needed.

Another major aspect is to ensure that critical power supply is itself very reliable. This will need suitable redundancies and a well-engineered multi-module system so that when the need arises the redundant modules cut-in and take over the load without any hitches. This workshop will also briefly look at the design issues involved in planning the distribution of critical power by deploying state-of-the art control devices such as static transfer equipment.

Finally, strategies you can implement to optimise energy efficiencies at your facility will be examined. Reducing electric power usage results in reduced expenditure to the consumer. On a macro-level, it reduces power demand and avoids the need for power cuts and load shedding by the power supply agencies. It also reduces the capacity requirement and capital expenditure on standby power equipment. The workshop is concluded with the steps to take to optimise the energy efficiency of your installation.

If you are responsible for maintaining power availability in your facility, this workshop is something which you simply cannot afford to miss. And all you need is to just invest three days of your time and listen to what our expert instructors have to say!

WHAT IS INCLUDED?

  • Receive a certificate of attendance in support of your continuing professional commitment
  • All workshops include the associated hardcopy technical manual
  • Printed workshophandouts
  • Lunch and refreshments
  • Interact and network with workshop attendees and experienced instructors
  • Practical, industry driven content to assist you in your continuing professional development (CPD)
  • Attendees automatically become IDC subscribers and receive exclusivedeals and technical content every month

WHO SHOULD ATTEND?

  • Distribution planning engineers
  • Electrical and instrumentation engineers
  • Plant engineers
  • Automation engineers
  • Control engineers
  • Mechanical engineers
  • Engineering managers
  • Operators and technicians
  • Anyone actively involved with implementing or optimising a critical power supply system

CONTENT SUMMARY

MAIN FORMS OF ENERGY

  • Energy converted to electricity for direct use
  • Who are the main users of electricity?
  • Use of fuels for motive power
  • Examples from mobile equipment/transport sector
  • Direct use of fuels for heating applications
  • Conversion equipment and challenges
  • What is the impact of better conversion efficiency on the energy scenario?

ELECTRICAL ENERGY USAGE

  • Sectors using the major portion of electricity
    • Industrial, Domestic, Agriculture and agro-processing, Mining and metals
  • Uses of electricity
    • Motive power
    • Lighting
    • Space heating and cooling
  • Better efficiencies in electricity usage

ELECTRICAL POWER SCENARIO TODAY

  • Load growth in developing economies
  • Power generation-Does it keep up with demand?
  • Aging of existing power infrastructure and diminishing plant load factor
  • Difficulties in fresh investments for power infrastructure
  • Environmental pollution
  • Fuels and fuel security issues
  • Effect of power shortages on electrical systems with regard to power quality and reliabilit

CRITICAL POWER NEEDS AND SOLUTIONS

  • Problems arising from power failures
  • Tolerance for interruptions and voltage/frequency excursions
    • CBEMA, ITIC and ANSI voltage sensitivity curves
  • Distinguishing between standby power, emergency power and critical power
  • Typical requirement profile for standby/emergency/critical power in homes and offices
  • Different solutions for critical power needs
  • Reliability assessment
    • What is MTBF?
    • What is MTTR?
    • Arriving at overall reliability expectation from a critical power supply system

OVERVIEW OF CRITICAL POWER SUPPLY EQUIPMENT

  • Critical power supply
    • Stored energy systems using flywheel/compressed air
    • Rotary power supply systems
    • Battery-backed static UPS
    • Fuel cell
    • DG sets
  • Choosing the right option
    • What is the quantum of load that is considered critical?
    • What are the characteristics of this load (technical criteria)?
    • Power system reliability and cost of outage
    • Comparing the costs (upfront, operating both in short term and long term)

DIESEL GENERATING SET (PART 1: ENGINES)

  • Basic Engine processes
    • Reciprocating Engines
    • Spark Ignition Engines
    • Diesel Engines
    • Dual Fuel Engines
  • Speed Classifications
  • Service Classification
  • Basic engine design and ratings
  • Design characteristics and formulas
  • Ambient conditions
  • ISO ratings
  • Performance and Efficiency
  • Efficiency enhancements
  • Engine speed
  • Fuel combustion methods

DIESEL GENERATING SET (PART 2: GENERATORS)

  • Principle of operation
  • Major components
  • Generator types
  • Construction features
  • Insulation
  • Low voltage and medium voltage generators
  • Typical circuitry
  • Load types and Generator sizing
  • System grounding methods
  • Faults and protection
  • Performance evaluation and Testing

STATIC UPS BASICS

  • General configuration
  • Types of static UPS systems
  • UPS metering, indications, alarms and protection
  • Power quality and UPS
  • UPS applications to computer loads
  • UPS configurations in computer installations
  • Rating of UPS systems for computer equipment
  • Redundant UPS configuration
  • Grounding of UPS derived supplies

BASICS OF BATTERIES

  • Battery and its two basic types
  • Secondary cells-construction
  • Applications of secondary batteries
  • General features
  • Battery types and construction
  • Chemical reactions in batteries
  • Salient features of lead-acid battery
  • Salient features of nickel-cadmium battery
  • Main types of lead-acid batteries
  • Lead acid battery-manufacturing process
  • SMF batteries-construction, advantages and drawbacks

CHARGING AND DISCHARGING OF BATTERIES

  • The need for charging
  • Types of charging
  • Float charging
  • Boost charging
  • Completion of charging
  • Overcharging and undercharging
  • Discharging of batteries
  • Battery charging equipment
  • Nickel cadmium batteries

SELECTION AND SIZING OF BATTERIES

  • Applicable definitions
  • Selection of batteries-basic approach
  • Application information
  • Sizing procedure
  • Calculating the number of cells
  • Duty cycle
  • Computing the capacity of battery based on duty cycle
  • Alternative method of sizing
  • Correction factors
  • UPS battery sizing

INSTALLATION OF BATTERIES

  • Requirements for safety during installation and operation
  • Receipt and checking of batteries and accessories
  • Storage prior to installation
  • Pre-installation planning
  • Installation of battery racks
  • Handling and pre-installation checks
  • Mounting of cells on racks
  • Installing flame arrestors and labels
  • Making electrical connections
  • Checking the integrity of electrical connections
  • Making external electrical connections

STATIC TRANSFER SYSTEMS FOR CRITICAL POWER SUPPLIES

  • UPS as a separately derived source
  • Need for neutral isolation between input and output
  • Multiple sources with independent neutral connections
  • Basics of static transfer
  • Static transfer applications in practical critical power systems
  • Neutral management
  • Comparing 3-pole and 4-pole static transfer equipment
  • Standards governing static transfer systems
  • EMC and performance compliance aspects

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL POWER APPLICATIONS: FUEL CELLS

  • Fuel cell basics
  • Broad types of fuel cells available in today’s market
  • Comparison of fuel cells with battery backed UPS systems
  • Comparison of fuel cells with engine-based power supplies
  • Fuel cell applications for critical power
  • Regenerative fuel cells for improved conversion efficiency

WHAT IS ENERGY EFFICIENCY?

  • Energy and environment
  • Energy forms and conversion
  • Energy conservation imperatives
  • Energy sources and energy sinks

ENERGY EFFICIENT PRACTICES IN ELECTRICITY USE

  • High efficiency motors
  • Role of power factor
  • Motor rating and efficiency correlation
  • Variable speed drives as energy-savers
  • Lighting efficiency through
    • Better light sources
    • Efficient luminaires
    • Use of daylight to supplement artificial lightning
  • Intelligent buildings to reduce wastage of electricity

ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN CLIMATE CONTROL (HVAC) APPLICATIONS

  • Need for climate control
  • Industry and comfort examples
  • Efficiency in heating
  • Reducing heat loss through better design and waste heat recovery
  • Efficiency in cooling
  • Building design features to improve cooling
  • The paradox of cooling
    • Temperature reduction but no energy recovery
  • Use of waste heat for cooling
  • Comparison between compression refrigeration and absorption chillers

INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY AUDITS

  • Compare energy usage
  • Energy use and cost index
  • Lighting and HVAC energy use
  • Energy and cost saving opportunities

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